To Infinity and Beyond

To Infinity and Beyond

Mark Lazar’s May 2021 Newsletter

The first panacea for a mismanaged nation is inflation of the currency; the second is war. Both bring a temporary prosperity; both bring a permanent ruin. Ernest Hemingway

April was another good month for stocks. The Nasdaq, S&P, DJIA, and Russell 2000 gained 5.40%, 5.24%, 2.71%, and 2.07% respectively.

The biggest driver of returns was earnings. Thus far, 25% of the S&P 500 companies have reported Q1 results; of these companies, 84% have beaten their earnings forecast, which is a trend that should continue. Bloomberg estimates corporate earnings will increase 28% this year. Part of this extraordinary increase is due to the expected bounce from the pandemic-induced recession of 2020, but most can be attributed to record government spending.

In addition to higher stock prices, real estate and commodities were also beneficiaries of a good month; the FHFA index, which measures home prices, rose 0.9% in February and is up 12.3% over the past year—the largest twelve-month increase on record. If that’s not enough, first quarter real GDP grew 6.4%.

YTD Change
Dow Jones Ind Avg
S&P 500 Index
EAFE Foreign Index
Barclays Agg Bond Index
10-Year Inflation Forecast
2021 GDP Growth Forecast
Unemployment Rate

*Market index data as of 4/30/2021

Milton Friedman taught us that inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon, meaning at the end of the day, the Fed is always the culprit. From 1913 until 1978 the U.S. central bank had a single objective: fight inflation. However, in 1978 Congress gave it a second mandate; maintain full employment. Ironically, after decades of fighting inflation with tight monetary policy, the Fed is now attempting to do the opposite; spur inflation, with unprecedented loose monetary policy.

It’s important to understand how inflation affects various asset classes; some of which benefit while others suffer during inflationary periods. The following is a list of some of the primary investment types and how they tend to be affected by inflation:


  • Stocks-Stocks are typically a good, long-term inflation hedge and have historically provided positive real returns. Between 1926 and 2017 stocks returned 22%, whereas inflation averaged 2.89%, meaning stocks provided a real return of over 7%.
  • Real estate-Real estate, in general, appreciates faster than the rate of inflation. Both the value of real estate as well as rents tend to rise equal to or faster than the rate of inflation.
  • Commodities-Commodities (e.g., copper, nickel, wheat, corn, etc.) tend to be positively correlated with inflation, meaning prices generally increase/decrease with the expectation of higher/lower inflation.
  • Convertible bonds-Have a feature which allows the holder to convert the bond to common stock once the underlying stock price reaches a predetermined value. Convertible bonds tend to have characteristics of both a bond and a stock and can provide returns over and above inflation while still providing regular income.
  • TIPSTIPS are designed to protect investors from the corrosive effect of inflation on fixed income investments. The principal is adjusted/increases with inflation, as measured by the CPI. Additionally, the rate of interest paid can increase as well.
  • High yield bonds-High-yield, or junk bonds, tend to be more correlated with the stock market and are less interest rate sensitive than their higher credit quality, investment grade Consequently, they can potentially increase in value during times of rising rates.
  • Debt-Rising price levels benefit holders (borrowers) of fixed rate debt, but is toxic for lenders of the same. Inflation reduces the real value of debt and allows borrowers to make payments with devalued dollars while enjoying rising income due to wage inflation.


  • Fixed coupon bonds-Inflation hurts fixed coupon bonds two ways; first, since higher inflation leads to higher interest rates, the market value falls. Second, as price levels rise, the coupon payments have reduced purchasing power.
  • Cash-If the interest rate earned is less than the rate of inflation, the real return is negative. Earning .25% interest when inflation is 2.25% results in a real return of -2%; your money would lose 2% of its purchasing power annually. In an inflationary environment, cash is a great way to lose money safely.


  • Inflation-adjusted bonds-Pay a base rate of interest plus some amount over and above their reference rate. Consequently, if rates rise, the rate they pay tends to increase as well. In general, the price of inflation-adjusted securities doesn’t fluctuate nearly as much as fixed coupon instruments.

According to the Consumer Price Index, the YOY inflation rate is 2.6%; slightly above the Fed’s long-standing 2% target rate. Upon further investigation, at 33%, “Shelter” is the single biggest component in the CPI. However, home prices aren’t part of the calculus; only rents, and rents have been artificially suppressed due to a government-imposed moratorium on evictions and foreclosures, meaning the government’s inflation gauge is currently a poor barometer of rising price levels. To this point, commodities, which are highly correlated with inflation, YTD are up 23%, which is virtually identical to the 24% increase in the US money supply.

Opposing factors, such as slowing population growth, technology/creative destruction, and globalization/outsourcing, make it unlikely we’ll experience Carter-era inflation, or something even close to that. But with the Fed’s current Buzz Lightyear monetary policy battle cry, To Infinity and Beyond, inflation is here and moving higher. Savvy investors understand that what feels safe, such as cash and bonds, will be punished by Jerome Powell’s panacea to address everything from underemployment to climate change.

Mark Lazar, MBA
Certified Financial Planner®

Views expressed in this newsletter are the current opinion of the author, but not necessarily those of Raymond James & Associates. The author's opinions are subject to change without notice. Information contained in this report was received from sources believed to be reliable, but accuracy is not guaranteed. Past performance is not indicative of future results. There is no assurance these trends will continue or that forecasts mentioned will occur. Investing always involves risk and you may incur a profit or loss. No investment strategy can guarantee success. The S&P 500 is an unmanaged index of 500 widely held stocks. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is an unmanaged index of 30 widely held securities. It is not possible to invest directly in an index. Companies engaged in business related to a specific sector are subject to fierce competition and their products and services may be subject to rapid obsolescence. There are additional risks associated with investing in an individual sector, including limited diversification. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the annual market value of all goods and services produced domestically by the US. The information in this article is general in nature, is not a complete statement of all information necessary for making an investment decision, and is not a recommendation or a solicitation to buy or sell any security. Investments and strategies mentioned may not be suitable for all investors. The MSCI EAFE (Europe, Australasia, and Far East) is a free float-adjusted market capitalization index that is designed to measure developed market equity performance, excluding the United States & Canada. The MSCI Emerging Markets is designed to measure equity market performance in 25 emerging market indices. The index's three largest industries are materials, energy, and banks. The Barclays US Aggregate Bond Index is a broad-based flagship benchmark that measures the investment grade, US dollar-denominated, fixed-rate taxable bond market. International investing involves special risks, including currency fluctuations, differing financial accounting standards, and possible political and economic volatility. Links are being provided for information purposes only. Raymond James is not affiliated with and does not endorse, authorize or sponsor any of the listed websites or their respective sponsors. Raymond James is not responsible for the content of any website or the collection or use of information regarding any website's users and/or members. Raymond James is not affiliated with any of the organizations listed above. Neither Raymond James Financial Services no any Raymond James Financial Advisor renders advice on tax issues, these matters should be discussed with the appropriate professional. Investing in commodities is generally considered speculative because of the significant potential for investment loss. Their markets are likely to be volatile and there may be sharp price fluctuations even during periods when prices overall are rising. Gold is subject to the special risks associated with investing in precious metals, including but not limited to: price may be subject to wide fluctuation; the market is relatively limited; the sources are concentrated in countries that have the potential for instability; and the market is unregulated. Be advised that investments in real estate and in REITs have various risks, including possible lack of liquidity and devaluation based on adverse economic and regulatory changes. Additionally, investments in REIT's will fluctuate with the value of the underlying properties, and the price at redemption may be more or less than the original price paid. Sector investments are companies engaged in business related to a specific sector. They are subject to fierce competition and their products and services may be subject to rapid obsolescence. There are additional risks associated with investing in an individual sector, including limited diversification. Donors are urged to consult their attorneys, accountants or tax advisors with respect to questions relating to the deductibility of various types of contributions to a Donor-Advised Fund for federal and state tax purposes.